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Title: Selective methoxylation of limonene over ion-exchanged and acid-activated clays
Authors: Catrinescu, C.
Fernandes, C.
Castilho, P.
Breen, C.
Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L.
Cansado, I.P.P.
Keywords: Ion-exchanged clays
acid-activated clays
terpinyl methyl ether
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: C. Catrinescu, C. Fernandes, P. Castilho, C. Breen, M.M.L. Ribeiro Carrott, I.P.P. Cansado, Selective methoxylation of limonene over ion-exchanged and acid-activated clays, Applied Catalysis A: General 467 (2013) 38-46.
Abstract: In this study, we report the use of clay-based catalysts in the methoxylation of limonene, for the selective synthesis of terpinyl methyl ether. Na-SAz-1, Ca-SWy-2 and Sap-Ca source clays and a montmorillonite (SD) from Porto Santo, Madeira Archipelago, Portugal were modified by (i) ion-exchange with Al, Fe, Ni and Na and (ii) acid activation, to produce catalysts with markedly different acidic and textural properties. The lack of activity of Ni-SAz-1 (with Lewis acidity maximised), provided evidence that the process occurs preferentially on Brønsted acid sites. The catalysts based on the high layer-charge SAz-1 montmorillonite proved to be the most active. Ion-exchange with Al3+, followed by thermal activation at 150 ºC, afforded the highest number of Brønsted acid sites located in the clay gallery and this coincided with the maximum catalytic activity. The influence of various reaction conditions, to maximize limonene conversion and selectivity, was studied over Al-SAz-1. When the reaction was performed for 20 h at 40 °C, the conversion reached 71% with 91% selectivity to the mono-ether. Mild acid activation (1M HCl, 30 min, reflux) of the raw SAz-1 clay leads to a material with a good catalytic behaviour (slightly inferior to Al-SAz-1), while any increase in the severity of the acid-treatment (6M HCl, 30 min, reflux), caused a marked decrease in catalytic activity.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:CQE - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica
QUI - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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