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Title: Ore Geology Reviews 142 (2022) 104736 Available online 3 February 2022 0169-1368/© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( insights on the Escoural Orogenic gold district (Ossa-Morena Zone, SW Iberia): Geochemistry, fluid inclusions and stable isotope constraints from the Monfurado gold prospect
Authors: Maia, Miguel
Roseiro, José
Nogueira, Pedro
Noronha, Fernando
Fuertes-Fuente, Mercedes
Cepedal, Antonia
Mirão, José
Keywords: Orogenic gold
Vectoring gold exploration
Sulfide geochemistry
Fluid-rock interactions
SW Iberian Massif
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Ore Geology Reviews
Citation: Maia, M., Roseiro, J., Nogueira, P., Noronha, F., Fuertes-Fuente, M., Cepedal, A., & Mirão, J. (2022). New insights on the Escoural Orogenic gold district (Ossa-Morena Zone, SW Iberia): Geochemistry, fluid inclusions and stable isotope constraints from the Monfurado gold prospect. Ore Geology Reviews, 142, 104736.
Abstract: The Escoural gold district belongs to the Montemor-Ficalho metallogenic belt which is part of the Portuguese section of Ossa-Morena Zone (OMZ), at the SW of Iberia. The Escoural gold district includes twelve gold pros- pects and/or deposits largely controlled by the NW-SE Montemor-o-Novo Shear Zone (MNSZ) and associated fault zones, extending for approximately 30 km. Ubiquitously, gold-arsenopyrite-loellingite assemblages hosted in quartz-sericite-chlorite veins are found in most deposits, although, in the Monfurado prospect, the gold- bearing assemblages are more complex. This prospect is located in the vicinity of a Cambrian SEDEX-VMS iron deposit, from which massive and disseminated iron-ores hosted in marbles and calcsilicate rocks, were exploited. The interplay of the gold mineralizing processes with the iron-rich host rocks has favored gold deposition at the Monfurado prospect. Selected samples from six drill cores allowed to define two mineralizing events: the pre-ore and ore stages. Two types of gold mineralization characterize the ore-stage: i) massive sulfide horizons in which gold (Au = 85.6–86.3 wt%; Ag = 13.1–13.6 wt%) is hosted in arsenopyrite and pyrite or, seldomly, gold particles (Au = 91.8 wt%; Ag = 7.1 wt%) found in an arsenopyrite-rich layer; and ii) quartz- chlorite-pyrite veins crosscutting acid metavolcanic rocks with rhyolite-rhyodacite affinities, in which gold (Au = 80.5–82.9 wt%; Ag = 16.8–18.7 wt%) is found as fracture filling in pyrite, sometimes accompanied by Bi- Te phases. Arsenopyrite geothermometer suggests that for type i the overall deposition temperature falls within the range of 188 ◦C to 372 ◦C. Type ii mineralization lacks arsenopyrite, and for this reason, thermodynamic constraints were gathered from fluid inclusions and chlorite geothermometer. CH4-rich fluid inclusions are ubiquitous in transgranular fluid inclusion planes, suggesting that reduced fluids percolated the rocks that host type ii mineralization. The reduced fluids support the transport of gold in sulfide complexes, such as AuHS- and Au(HS)-2. Furthermore, secondary H2O-NaCl fluid inclusions (Lw2) were found, with mean salinities of 6.0 eq. w (NaCl) and mean homogenization temperature of 226 ◦C, with corresponding pressures of 3.0 MPa, thus sug- gesting late hydrostatic regimes. Chlorite geothermometer results are in the range of 229 ◦C and 309 ◦C, agreeing with the fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures for Lw2 fluids. Sulfur isotope (δ34S) analysis of representative sulfide phases collected from both mineralization types, revealed signatures ranging from 8.5 ‰ and 10.6 ‰, indicating a single sulfur source. The gathered results suggest that although fluid transport is structurally controlled by MNSZ activity, the sulfidation reactions pro- moted by fluid-rock interactions are the main control on gold deposition from type i mineralization. It is further suggested that a coeval gold-event can lead to the deposition of two different types of mineralization, related to distinct gold deposition mechanisms.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:GEO - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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