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Title: An insight into the provenance of the Phoenician-Punic glass beads of the necropolis of Vinha das Caliças (Beja, Portugal)
Authors: Costa, Mafalda
Barrulas, Pedro
Arruda, Ana Margarida
Dias, Luís
Barbosa, Rui
Vandenabeele, Peter
Mirão, José
Keywords: Glass beads
Eye beads
Iron Age
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Springer
Abstract: Phoenician-Punic glass beads recovered from the necropolis of Vinha das Caliças 4 (Beja, Portugal), dated to the Iron Age, were studied by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (VP-SEM–EDS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). All glass was found to be soda-lime-silica natron-based glass. Trace element and rare earth element analysis suggest that the blue, turquoise, white, and colorless glass was manufactured in the Levant region, using rather pure coastal sands, while two amber and black-colored glass beads seem to have been produced in Egypt. Although the exact manufacture location of these Phoenician-Punic glass beads remains unknown, these results are in agreement with the commercialization of raw glass produced in established primary glass workshops in the Levant and in Egypt. The procurement of cobalt ores from specific geological provinces, on the other hand, is a strong evidence of the existence of large-scale trade routes of both raw materials and finished artefacts in the Iron Age. The finished artefacts trade routes included not only the previously established Mediterranean world and sub-Saharan Africa, but also Southern Central Iberia.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:HERCULES - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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