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Title: Phylogeography of the soil-borne vector nematode Xiphinema index highly suggests Eastern origin and dissemination with domesticated grapevine
Authors: Nguyen, Van Chung
Villate, Laure
Gutierrez-Gutierrez, Carlos
Castillo, Pablo
Van Ghelder, Cyril
Plantard, Olivier
Esmenjaud, Daniel
Keywords: GFLV
mitochondrial marker
Issue Date: 13-May-2019
Abstract: The soil-borne nematode Xiphinema index is closely linked to its main host, the grapevine, and presents a major threat to vineyards worldwide due to its ability to transmit Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). The phylogeography of X. index has been studied using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers in samples from most regions of its worldwide distribution to reveal its genetic diversity. We first used the mitochondrial marker CytB and illustrated the low intraspecific divergence of this mainly meiotic parthenogenetic species. To generate a higher polymorphism level, we then concatenated the sequences of CytB and three mitochondrial markers, ATP6, CO1 and ND4, to obtain a 3044-bp fragment. We differentiated two clades, which each contained two well-supported subclades. Samples from the eastern Mediterranean and the Near and Middle East were grouped into three of these subclades, whereas the samples from the western Mediterranean, Europe and the Americas all belonged to the fourth subclade. The highest polymorphism level was found in the samples of one of the Middle and Near East subclades, strongly suggesting that this region contained the native area of the nematode. An east-to-west nematode dissemination hypothesis appeared to match the routes of the domesticated grapevine during Antiquity, presumably mainly dispersed by the Greeks and the Romans. Surprisingly, the samples of the western subclade comprised only two highly similar mitochondrial haplotypes. The first haplotype, from southern Iberian Peninsula, Bordeaux and Provence vineyards, exhibited a high microsatellite polymorphism level that suggests introductions dating from Antiquity. The second haplotype contained a highly predominant microsatellite genotype widespread in distant western countries that may be a consequence of the massive grapevine replanting following the 19th-century phylloxera crisis. Finally, our study enabled us to draw a first scaffold of X. index diversity at the global scale.
ISSN: 2045-2322
Type: article
Appears in Collections:MED - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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