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|Title: ||Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011–2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations|
|Authors: ||Somoza, Luis|
González, F. Javier
Barker, S. J.
de Ignacio, C.
Vázquez, J. T.
|Keywords: ||2011-2012 El Hierro eruption|
Remote Operated Vehicle
|Issue Date: ||2017|
|Publisher: ||Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems|
|Abstract: ||Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed.
Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface
observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a
new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of
edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions
ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time
intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing
in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed.
Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive
ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational
collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and
show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava
balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to
progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final
eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the
distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be
rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.|
|Appears in Collections:||ICT - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica|
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