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Title: Favourable areas for co-occurrence of parapatric species: niche conservatism and niche divergence in Iberian tree frogs and midwife toads
Authors: Reino, Luís
Ferreira, Mário
Martínez-Solano, Íñigo
Segurado, Pedro
Xu, Chi
Barbosa, A. Márcia
Keywords: amphibians
distributional overlap
environmental favourability
evolutionary biogeography
fuzzy logic
niche evolution
species distribution modelling
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: Reino L., Ferreira M., Martínez-Solano I., Segurado P., Xu C. & Barbosa A.M. (in press) Favourable areas for co-occurrence of parapatric species: niche conservatism and niche divergence in Iberian tree frogs and midwife toads. Journal of Biogeography
Abstract: Aim Predicting species responses to global change is one of the most pressing issues in conservation biogeography. A key part of the problem is understanding how organisms have reacted to climatic changes in the past. Here we use species distribution modelling to infer the effects of climate changes since the Last Interglacial (LIG, about 130,000 ybp) on patterns of genetic structure and diversity in the Western Spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) in combination with spatially-explicit phylogeographic analyses. Location Iberian Peninsula and mainland France. Methods 524 individuals from 54 populations across the species range were sampled to document patterns of genetic diversity and infer their evolutionary history based on data from mtDNA and fourteen polymorphic microsatellites. Generalized linear models based on distribution data were used to infer climatic favourability for the species in the present and in paleoclimatic simulations for the LIG, the Mid Holocene and the last glacial maximum (LGM). Results Estimates of genetic diversity show a decreasing trend from south to north, suggesting persistence of high historical population sizes in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Species distribution models show differences in climatic favourability through time, with significant correlations between historically stable favourable areas and current patterns of genetic diversity. These results are corroborated by Bayesian Skyline Plots and continuous diffusion phylogeographic analyses. Main conclusions The results indicate the presence of southern refugia, with moderate recent expansions at the northern end of the species’ range. Toads at the northern range margin exhibit the lowest genetic diversity and occupy areas of high past climate variability, classified as marginal in terms of favourability, rendering these populations most vulnerable to climate-mediated changes in the long term.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:CIBIO-UE - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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