Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10174/26636

Title: Effect of long-term fungicide applications on virulence and diversity of Colletotrichum spp. Associated to olive anthracnose
Authors: Materatski, Patrick
Varanda, Carla
Carvalho, Teresa
Dias, António Bento
Campos, Maria Doroteia
Gomes, Luis
Nobre, Tânia
Rei, Fernando
Félix, Maria do Rosário
Keywords: anthracnose
control
Olea europaea L
fungicides resistance
Issue Date: 29-Aug-2019
Citation: Materatski, Patrick, Carla Varanda, Teresa Carvalho, António Bento Dias, Maria Doroteia Campos, Luis Gomes, Tânia Nobre, Fernando Rei and Maria do Rosário Félix (2019) Effect of long-term fungicide applications on virulence and diversity of Colletotrichum spp. Associated to olive anthracnose, Plants 8, 311
Abstract: In this study, the presence and variability of Colletotrichum spp. was evaluated by comparing fungal isolates obtained from olive trees under long-time phytosanitary treatments with trees without any phytosanitary treatments (treated and untreated, respectively). Olive fruits of trees of the highly susceptible ‘Galega vulgar’ cultivar growing in the Alentejo region were used as samples. From the 210 olive trees sampled (half from treated and half from untreated orchards), 125 (59.5%) presented Colletotrichum spp., with a significant lower number of infected trees in treated (39) when compared to untreated orchards (86). The alignment and analysis of beta-tubulin (tub2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1) and histone H3 (HIS-3) gene sequences allowed the identification of all 125 isolates as belonging to the C. acutatum complex. The vast majority of the isolates (124) were identified as C. nymphaeae and one isolate, from an untreated tree, was identified as C. godetiae. Isolates were divided into five different groups: Group A: 39 isolates from treated trees matched in 100% with C. nymphaeae sequences from the database; Group B: 76 isolates from untreated trees matched in 100% with C. nymphaeae sequences from the database; Group C: one isolate from untreated trees presenting a single nucleotidic difference in the HIS-3 sequence; Group D: eight isolates from untreated trees presenting differences in two nucleotides in the tub2 sequences that changed the protein structure, together with differences in two specific nucleotides of the GAPDH sequences; Group E: one isolate, from untreated olive trees, matched 100% with C. godetiae sequences from the database in all genes. Considering the similarities of the sampled areas, our results show that the long-time application of fungicides may have caused a reduction in the number of olive trees infected with Colletotrichum spp. but an increase in the number of fruits positive to Colletotrichum spp. within each tree, which may suggest different degrees of virulence of Colletotrichum isolates from trees growing different management regimes. It is imperative that the fungicides described as causing resistance are applied at appropriate times and intervals, since their efficiency decreases when applied incorrectly and new and more virulent species may arise.
URI: https://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/8/9/311
http://hdl.handle.net/10174/26636
Type: article
Appears in Collections:ICAAM - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica
FIT - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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