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|Title: ||Constructal view of city flow structure and people safety|
|Authors: ||Reis, A. Heitor|
|Keywords: ||Human Dynamics|
|Issue Date: ||2009|
|Publisher: ||IOS Press|
|Citation: ||A. Heitor Reis,”Constructal view of city flow structure and people safety”, Ch.2 in Constructal Human Dynamics, Security and Sustainability , (A. Bejan, S. Lorente, A. F. Miguel and A. H. Reis editors) Publisher: IOS Press(2009).|
|Abstract: ||In this paper cities are viewed as lively systems with internal flow structure
of people, energy and goods. By appropriately defining concepts as metabolic
rate, pulsating period, and mass previous studies have shown that cities
follow known allometric laws of animals, then allowing rules for selforganization.
The distributions of street lengths and nodes follow inversepower
distribution laws. That means that the smaller the network
components, the more numerous they have to be. In addition, street
networks show geometric self-similarities over a range of scales. Based on
these features many authors claim that street networks are fractal in
nature. What we show here is that both the scaling laws and self-similarity
spring out of the underlying dynamics, together with the purpose of
optimizing flows of people and goods in time, as predicted by the constructal
law. The results seem to corroborate the prediction that cities fractal
dimension approaches 2 as they develop and become more complex.
Examples from History show that constructal law provides a basis for
understanding the internal structure both of roman and medieval cities.
Finally, it is shown that the constructal law also provides the base for the
design of flow structures (street networks, corridor networks) which perform
optimally with respect to evacuating people from disaster areas.|
|Appears in Collections:||CGE - Publicações - Capítulos de Livros|
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