Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: Analytical and Microbiological Characterization of Paper Samples Exhibiting Foxing Stains
Authors: Nunes, Margarida
Relvas, Cátia
Figueira, Francisca
Campelo, Joana
Candeias, António
Caldeira, Ana T.
Ferreira, Teresa
Keywords: foxing stains
unfoxed area
paper degradation
Issue Date: Feb-2015
Publisher: Cambrigde Journals
Citation: Margarida Nunes, Cátia Relvas, Francisca Figueira, Joana Campelo, António Candeias, Ana T. Caldeira, Teresa Ferreira, Analytical and Microbiological Characterization of Paper Samples Exhibiting Foxing Stains, Microsc. Microanal. (2015) 21, 63-77. doi:10.1017/S143192761500001X
Abstract: This work comprises the use of a multi-analytical approach combined with microbiological studies to characterize six paper samples, containing foxing stains, from the 20th century, regarding their cellulose matrix, fillers, and sizing materials, and to evaluate possible paper degradation that might have occurred during the foxing stains. Photography under different illuminations and optical microscopy were used for morphological characterization of the paper samples and foxing stains. Scanning electron microscopy coupled energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was of particular importance for defining the presence of fiber disorder and disruption on the surface of some of the stains, and localized accumulations of mineral-like particles on the surface of others. SEM-EDS, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) were used for the identification of mineral fillers, whereas sizing agents were analyzed using ATR-FT-IR. EDXRF results showed that no differences, within the standard deviation, were found in iron and copper contents between the foxed and unfoxed areas. Fungi belonging to the genus Penicillium spp. were found in all the paper samples. Unfoxed areas presented lower contamination than the foxed areas.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:QUI - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica
HERCULES - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
M&M-21-2015-63.pdf3.14 MBAdobe PDFView/OpenRestrict Access. You can Request a copy!
FacebookTwitterDeliciousLinkedInDiggGoogle BookmarksMySpaceOrkut
Formato BibTex mendeley Endnote Logotipo do DeGóis 

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.


Dspace Dspace
DSpace Software, version 1.6.2 Copyright © 2002-2008 MIT and Hewlett-Packard - Feedback
UEvora B-On Curriculum DeGois