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Title: "Os Conflitos ambientais em Portugal (1974-2015): uma breve retrospectiva"
Authors: Guimarães, Paulo Eduardo
Fernandes, Francisco R. Chaves
Keywords: Conflitos Ambientais (Portugal)
Movimentos sociais - Ecologia (Portugal)
Issue Date: 31-May-2016
Publisher: CICP; CETEM - Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (Brasil)
Citation: Guimarães, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Francisco R. Chaves - "Os Conflitos ambientais em Portugal (1974-2015): uma breve retrospectiva". In Paulo E. Guimarães; Juan D. Pérez Cebada (eds.), Conflitos Ambientais na Indústria Mineira e Metalúrgica: o passado e o presente, Évora e Rio de Janeiro, CICP/CETEM, 2016, pp. 19-63.
Abstract: In this chapter, the authors made a survey of the research undertaken by social scientists and their reflections on environmental conflicts in Portugal. In these, a critical discourse has emerged concerning, on the one hand, the weak public environmental awareness, and, on the other, the progressive obliteration of environmental movements and their institutionalization throughout the creation of different environmental groups and the incorporation of the “environment” in legislation and in political discourse. In a brief retrospective, we review several conflicts taking into account different relevant factors: level of mobilization, media attention received, organization, impact, and ideological reference they have had in Portugal since the seventies. We have particularly highlighted the movement against nuclear energy and the construction of dams, the pollution caused by intensive breeding, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations, the conflicts against “wild” forms of mining, the business of toxic waste, the expansion of the economy of the concrete, the installation of landfills, and the defense of the natural heritage. This survey has considered three periods: the 1970s, marked by the emergence and performance of ecological movements of different ideological extraction; the second half of the 1980s, marked by the institutionalization of the environment and the imposition of a new legal framework with impact on environmental policies resulting from the integration into the European Economic Community; and finally, a third period, from the 1990s to present, marked by increasing environmental media coverage, with a particular emphasis on environmental conflicts in a context of an increasing liberalization of economic activities and the expansion of extraction and of the concrete economy. This is also the period where the environment emerges in disputes over the uses of the territory as economic and asset value. Most of these conflicts arise from the activities of local agents or national environmental groups that quickly gain strong local roots and sometimes even have some success. However, their impact on the national and Community legislation seems to be less relevant.
Type: bookPart
Appears in Collections:CICP - Publicações - Capítulos de Livros

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